Sabtu, 02 Oktober 2010
Everybody can get a brilliant business ideas that will let you get lot of money. That ideas can be found anywhere from internet to your neighborhood.
You get what I mean?
Discovering business idea is when you found a problem and know the solution, then it will became a new business chance. Yes, discovering business idea is as simple as that.
Let we describe it in 3 simple ways..
1. See your surrounding.
This is the simplest way. No need to go anywhere, see your surrendering. Maybe there are internet service, restaurant, laundry, etc. Maybe there are 3 laundry near you but all of them still working right?
Got your business ideas? But as advise if you want to start a business that already there on your place, create some difference to make your business unique.
2. Make a business from your hobby
You like to play guitar? Make a business from that ability. Do what you like and start a business from that one. Make your hobby into a monetized hobby. So you will never feel bored to do that business. Easy isn't it?
3. Teach other people and pick some charge
Maybe you great at web design or foreign language, you can teach it to other people via online, and pick some charge. You can give lecture to your student just by sit in front of your computer. How's that?:D
Many people has succeeded in internet business. Want to be the one? Start have 3 formula to get money from internet.
Jumat, 01 Oktober 2010
Lantas, bagaimana strategi marketing jalanan yang ampuh mendatangkan pembeli dan meningkatkan profit secara telak?
- Bentuk Tim Marketing yang Bertenaga. Carilah para anggota tim marketing yang penuh energi. Mengapa? Karena marketing jalanan cukup menguras energi. Karena itu sebaiknya anda rekrut orang-orang muda. Bisa anak sekolahan atau mereka yang masih kuliah.
- Tetapkan Target yang Jelas. Misalkan setiap marketer ditarget untuk mendatangi 10 rumah atau menemui 10 orang dalam satu jam dengan target closing minimal 30 persen.
- Buat Penawaran yang Tak Kuasa Ditolak Konsumen. Apakah itu? Penawaran yang sensasional! Ini merupakan salah satu kunci keberhasilan marketing jalanan. Berikan penawaran yang sensasional yang membuat konsumen tidak kuasa menolaknya. Kalau kata Mas Bligus Ardhi di sini mengutip Tung Desem Waringin, penawaran sensasional bersandar pada USP (U = Ultimate Advantage, S = Sensational Offer, P = Powerful Promise).
Menerapkan marketing jalanan memiliki keunggulan pada kemudahan dalam mengukur tingkat efektivitasnya. Sebab, tidak harus menunggu sampai seminggu atau bahkan sebulan, anda bahkan bisa mengukur efektivitasnya berdasar ukuran setiap jam. Marketing jalanan merupakan pendobrak bila segala macam upaya marketing online yang selama ini anda lakukan belum membuahkan hasil memuaskan.
Rabu, 11 Februari 2009
Properties, synthesis, uses
CI4 is slightly reactive towards water, giving iodoform and I2. Otherwise it is soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. It decomposes thermally and photochemically to tetraiodoethylene, I2C=CI2. Its synthesis entails AlCl3-catalyzed halide exchange, which is conducted at room temperature:
CCl4 + 4 EtI ? CI4 + 4 EtCl
The product crystallizes from the reaction solution.
CI4 is used as an iodination reagent, often upon reaction with base. Ketones are converted to 1,1-diiodoethenes upon treatment with PPh3 and CI4. Alcohols are converted in and to iodide, by a mechanism similar to the Appel reaction. In an Appel reaction carbon tetrachloride is used to generate the chloride from alcohols.
Manufacturers recommend that CI4 be stored near 0 °C. As a ready source of iodine, it is an irritant. LD50: 178 mg kg–1. In general perhalogenated organic compounds should be considered toxic.
CaF2(s) + H2SO4(l) ? CaSO4(s) + 2 HF(g) This is the reaction used to produce hydrogen fluoride in industry.
Calcium fluoride is commonly used as a window material for both infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths, since it is transparent in these regions (about 0.15 µm to 9 µm) and exhibits extremely weak birefringence. Nevertheless, at wavelengths as low as 157 nm, which are interesting to semiconductor manufacturers, the birefringence of calcium fluoride exceeds tolerable limits. This may be overcome by minimizing birefringence by optimimizing the growth process. It is particularly important as an ultraviolet optical material for integrated circuit lithography. Canon also uses artificially-crystallized calcium fluoride elements in some of its L-series lenses to reduce light dispersion. As an infrared optical material, calcium fluoride is sometimes known by the Eastman Kodak trademarked name Irtran-3, although this designation is long since obsolete.
Uranium-doped calcium fluoride was the second type of solid state laser invented, in the 1960s. Peter Sorokin and Mirek Stevenson at IBM's laboratories in Yorktown Heights, New York, achieved lasing at 2.5 µm shortly after Maiman's ruby laser.
Only small quantities of bromoform are currently produced industrially in the United States. In the past, it was used as a solvent and flame retardant, but now it is mainly used as a laboratory reagent.
Bromoform is one of the trihalomethanes closely related with fluoroform, chloroform and iodoform.
Bromine is the only liquid nonmetallic element at room temperature and one of five elements on the period table that are liquid at or close to room temperature. The pure chemical element has the physical form of a diatomic molecule, Br2. It is a heavy, mobile, reddish-brown liquid, that evaporates easily at standard temperature and pressures in a red vapor (its color resembles nitrogen dioxide) that has a strong disagreeable odor resembling that of chlorine. A halogen, bromine resembles chlorine chemically but is less active. It is more active than iodine, however. Bromine is slightly soluble in water, and highly soluble in carbon disulfide, aliphatic alcohols (such as methanol), and acetic acid. It bonds easily with many elements and has a strong bleaching action.
Bromine is highly reactive and is a powerful oxidizing agent in the presence of water. It reacts vigorously with amines, alkenes and phenols as well as aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones and acids (these are brominated by either addition or substitution reactions). With many of the metals and elements, anhydrous bromine is less reactive than hydrated bromine; however, dry bromine reacts vigorously with aluminum, titanium, mercury as well as alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals.
Due to its contribution to ozone depletion in Earth's atmosphere, bromine has been evaluated to have an ozone depletion potential of 60 when compared to chlorine.
Elemental bromine is used to manufacture a wide variety of bromine compounds used in industry and agriculture. Traditionally the largest use of bromine was in the production of 1,2-dibromoethane which in turn was used as a gasoline anti-knock agent for leaded gasoline before they were largely phased out due to environmental considerations.
Bromine is also used in the manufacture of fumigants, brominated flame-retardants, water purification compounds, dyes, medicines, sanitizers, inorganic bromides for photography, etc. It is also used to form intermediates in organic synthesis, where it is preferred to iodine due to its much lower cost.
Bromine is used to make brominated vegetable oil, which is used as an emulsifier in many citrus-flavored soft drinks.
Aqueous bromine is orange and can be used in tests for alkenes and phenols.
• When added to an alkene it will lose its color as it reacts forming a colorless bromoalkane. For example, reaction with ethylene will produce 1,2-dibromoethane.
• When added to phenol a white precipitate, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, will form. With aniline, 2,4,6 tribromoaniline will precipitate (even in water)
Bromine was discovered by Antoine Balard at the salt marshes of Montpellier in 1826 but was not produced in quantity until 1860. The French chemist and physicist Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac suggested the name bromine due to the characteristic smell of the vapors.
Bromine occurs in nature as bromide salts in very diffuse amounts in crystal rock. Due to leaching, bromide salts have accumulated in sea water (85 ppm), and may be economically recovered from brine wells and the Dead Sea (up to 5000 ppm).
Approximately 500 million kilograms ($350 million USD) of bromine are produced per year (2001) worldwide with the United States and Israel being the primary producers. The largest bromine reserve in the United States is located in Columbia and Union County, Arkansas.
Elemental bromine is a strong irritant and, in concentrated form, will produce painful blisters on exposed skin and especially mucous membranes. Even low concentrations of bromine vapor (from 10 ppm) can affect breathing, and inhalation of significant amounts of bromine can seriously damage the respiratory system.
Selasa, 10 Februari 2009
This highly radioactive element has been confirmed by mass spectrometers to behave chemically much like other halogens, especially iodine (it would probably accumulate in the thyroid gland like iodine). Astatine is thought to be more metallic than iodine. Researchers at the Brookhaven National Laboratory have performed experiments that have identified and measured elementary reactions that involve astatine; however, chemical research into astatine is limited by its extreme rarity, which is a result of its extremely short half-life.
Astatine is the rarest naturally-occurring element, with the total amount in Earth's crust estimated to be less than 1 oz (28 g) at any given time; this amounts to less than one teaspoon of the element. The Guinness Book of Records has dubbed the element the rarest on Earth, stating: "Only around 0.9 oz (25 g) of the element astatine (At) occurring naturally"; Isaac Asimov wrote a 1955 essay on large numbers, scientific notation, and the size of the atom, in which he stated that the number of astatine atoms on Earth at any time was "only a trillion".
The existence of "eka-iodine" had been predicted by Mendeleev. Astatine (after Greek astat?? astatos, meaning "unsteady") was first synthesized in 1940 by Dale R. Corson, K. R. MacKenzie, and Emilio Segrè at the University of California, Berkeley by barraging bismuth with alpha particles. An earlier name for the element was alabamine (Ab).
Astatine is produced by bombarding bismuth with energetic alpha particles to obtain relatively long-lived 209At - 211At, which can then be distilled from the target by heating in the presence of air.
Multiple compounds of astatine have been synthesized in microscopic amounts and studied as intensively as possible before their inevitable radioactive disintegration. These compounds are primarily of theoretical interest; however, they are also being studied for potential use in nuclear medicine.
Astatine has 33 known isotopes, all of which are radioactive; the range of their mass numbers is from 191 to 223. There exist also 23 metastable excited states. The longest-lived isotope is 210At, which has a half-life of 8.1 hours; the shortest-lived known isotope is 213At, which has a half-life of 125 nanoseconds.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. A liquid may change to a gas at temperatures below the boiling point through the process of evaporation. Any change of state from a liquid to a gas at boiling point is considered vaporization. However, evaporation is a surface phenomenon, in which only molecules located near the gas/liquid surface could evaporate. Boiling on the other hand is a bulk process, so at the boiling point molecules anywhere in the liquid may be vaporized, resulting in the formation of vapor bubbles.
somewhat clearer (and perhaps more useful) definition of boiling point is "the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure of the surroundings."
Something that should be remembered is that boiling is evidenced by the appearance of bubbles containing vapor from the liquid. [Note: The bubbles that precede real boiling in the pot on the stove are either (formerly) dissolved gas or water vapor forming on the very hot bottom of the pot that will be condensed before it can get to the top of the liquid.] Production of vapor requires energy and thus does not occur without some source of energy. This source can be a hot surface or even the liquid itself. Hot liquid will boil as it rises through the bulk liquid if the pressure of the environment drops to the vapor pressure of the liquid at its temperature. This production of vapor will not quickly stop because the temperature of the liquid will not be reduced by the vaporization thus reducing the vapor pressure.
Saturation temperature and pressure
A saturated liquid or saturated vapor contains as much thermal energy as it can without boiling or condensing.
Saturation temperature means boiling point. The saturation temperature is the temperature for a corresponding saturation pressure at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase. The liquid can be said to be saturated with thermal energy. Any addition of thermal energy results in a phase change.
If the pressure in a system remains constant (isobaric), a vapor at saturation temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as thermal energy (heat) is removed. Similarly, a liquid at saturation temperature and pressure will boil into its vapor phase as additional thermal energy is applied.
The boiling point corresponds to the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the substance equals the ambient pressure. Thus the boiling point is dependent on the pressure. Usually, boiling points are published with respect to standard pressure (101.325 kilopascals or 1 atm). At higher elevations, where the atmospheric pressure is much lower, the boiling point is also lower. The boiling point increases with increased ambient pressure up to the critical point, where the gas and liquid properties become identical. The boiling point cannot be increased beyond the critical point. Likewise, the boiling point decreases with decreasing ambient pressure until the triple point is reached. The boiling point cannot be reduced below the triple point.
Saturation Pressure, or vapor point, is the pressure for a corresponding saturation temperature at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase. Saturation pressure and saturation temperature have a direct relationship: as saturation pressure is increased so is saturation temperature.
If the temperature in a system remains constant (an isothermal system), vapor at saturation pressure and temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as the system pressure is increased. Similarly, a liquid at saturation pressure and temperature will tend to flash into its vapor phase as system pressure is decreased.
The process of changing from a liquid to a gas requires an amount of heat called the latent heat of vaporization. As heat is added to a liquid at its boiling point, all of this heat goes toward the phase change from liquid to gas, thus the temperature of the substance remains constant even though heat has been added. The word latent, which comes from Latin and means hidden, is used to describe this "disappearing" heat that is added, but doesn't result in an increase in temperature. Since heat is added with no corresponding change in temperature, the heat capacity of the liquid is essentially infinite at the boiling point.
In terms of intermolecular interactions, the boiling point represents the point at which the liquid molecules possess enough heat energy to overcome the various intermolecular attractions binding the molecules into the liquid (eg. dipole-dipole attraction, instantaneous-dipole induced-dipole attractions, and hydrogen bonds). Therefore the boiling point is also an indicator of the strength of these attractive forces.
The boiling point of water is 100 °C (212 °F) at standard pressure. On top of Mount Everest the pressure is about 260 mbar (26 kPa) so the boiling point of water is 69 °C.
For purists with a knowledge of thermodynamics, the normal boiling point of water is 99.97 degrees Celsius (at a pressure of 1 atm, i.e. 101.325 kPa). Until 1982 this was also the standard boiling point of water, but the IUPAC now recommends a standard pressure of 1 bar (100 kPa). At this slightly reduced pressure, the standard boiling point of water is 99.61 degrees Celsius
Properties of other elements
The element with the lowest boiling point is helium. Both the boiling points of rhenium and tungsten exceed 5000 K at standard pressure. Due to the experimental difficulty of precisely measuring extreme temperatures without bias, there is some discrepancy in the literature as to whether tungsten or rhenium has the higher boiling point.